Grandiose Survey of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Beverages

Written by Xu Gan Rong, Bao Tong Fa
HTML Handling by Le Hong Bing


Chapter 1: Origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages
             1.1       Different Opinions of Origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages
             1.1.1    Legends of origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages
    Yi Di started brewing of Alcoholic Drinks
     Du Kong Invented Brewing of Alcoholic Drinks
    Brewing of alcoholic drinks started in the period of Huang Di -a tribe chief.
    Alcoholic Drinking Occurred in Harmony with the Existence of the Universe

             1.1.2 Origin of Brewing of Alcoholic Drinks Proved by Archaeological Discoveries
    Pei Ligang Culture Period
    Homudou Culture Period
    Ci-shan Culture Period
    Shang Xiang Dui Relics
    Da Wen Kou Tomb's Culture Remains of Ling Ying He, Ju County of Shangdong Province

            1.1.3 Modern Viewpoints of Origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages
   Alcoholic Beverages Are Natural Products
   Fruit Wine and Milk Wine—the First Beverages

            1.1.4 Sorts and Origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages by using grains
   Did Brewing of Alcoholic Drinks by Using Grains Start During Agricultural Period or Before It?
   What Sorts of Chinese Primitive Grain Alcoholic Drinks Were They?
   Proofs of Production of Beer During Ancient Ages in China.

           1.2 Origin of Distilled Spirits
           1.2.1 Different Opinions of Origin of Distilled Alcoholic Liquors
  The Distilled Alcoholic liquor Started in Yuan Dynasty
  The Distilled Alcoholic Liquor Was Introduced From Abroad In Yuan Dynasty
  Distilled Alcoholic Liquors occurred in Song Dynasty
  The Distilled Alcoholic liquor was originated in Tang Dynasty
  Distilled Alcoholic Liquor Originated in Eastern Han Dynasty

           1.2.2 Origin of Distilled Alcohol Liquor Abroad
           1.2.3 Names of Ancient Distilled Liquors

Chapter 2: Jiuqu (Qu), Its Production and Application in Alcoholic Beverages Industry
             2.1 Introduction
             2.1.1 Definition
             2.1.2 Functions of the Jiuqu
             2.1.3 Classification of Jiuqu
    Rice as raw material
    Wheat as raw material
    Bran as raw material

            2.2 Historic Development of Jiuqu-making Technique
            2.2.1 In Han Dynasty ( 206 B.C.-220 A.D.)
            2.2.2 In Northern and Southern Dynasties
            2.2.3 From Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) to Song Dynasty ( 960-1279 A.D.)
            2.2.4 From Ming Dynasty to Qing Dymasty

           2.3 Jiuqu-making Technology
           2.3.1 Wheat Qu
  Traditional wheat Qu production
  Pure cultured wheat Qu
           2.3.2 Da Qu
           2.3.3 Xiao Qu
  Traditional Xiao Qu production
  Pure cultured XIAO Qu and mixed cultured XIAO Qu
           2.3.4 Red Rice ( Ang-kak)
  Introduction to red rice in general
  Traditional preparation procedures
  Pure cultured red rice production

Chapter 3 Rice Wines in China, Their History, Processes and Products
            3.1 Rice wines in General
            3.1.1 Introduction
            3.1.2 Classification
   Formal Classification
   Classification according to the production methods
   Classifying According to the Sacchrifying and Fermenting Agents Used
            3.1.3 Utilization of Rice Wines
            3.1.4 Chemical compositions of the rice wines

            3.2 Development History of Rice Wine Brewing Technology
            3.2.1 Introduction
            3.2.2 Historical Development of Rice Wine Brewing Technology
   Rice wine-making Technology before Hang Dynasty (from prehistoric times to 206 B.C.)
   Rice Wine-making Technology from Hang Dynasty to Northern and Southern Dynasties (the period of 206 B.C.- 581 A.D.)
   Rice Wine-making Technology from Tang Dynasty (618-907) to Southern Song Dynasty (1127- 1279)
   Rice Wine-making Technology from Yuan Dynasty (1115 -1368) to Qing Dynasty ( 1644- 1911)
   Rice Wine-making Technology Since 1911

            3.3 Raw Materials and Material Handling in Rice Wine Brewing
            3.3.1 Raw Materials for Rice wine Brewing
            3.3.2 Pretreatment of Raw Materials
   Polishing of Rice
   Washing and Steeping of rice
   Steaming of Rice
   Cooling of the Steamed Rice

            3.4 Preparation of Seed Mash Used for Ricewine Brewing
            3.4.1 Traditional Seed Mash Preparation in Song Dynasty
            3.4.2 Traditional Seed Mash Preparation Currently Used in Some Rice Wine Breweries
   Ingredients for Preparation of Traditional Seed Mash
   Sacchrification and fermentation
            3.4.3 Pure Cultivated Yeasts
            3.4.4 Active Instant Dried Yeasts

            3.5 Fermentation and Post-fermentation
            3.5.1 The characteristics of Rice Wine Fermentation
   Use of Jiu Qu
   Parallel Fermentaton
   Low Temperature Fermentation for a Long Time
   Semi-solid Fermentation
   High Content of Ethanol
            3.5.2 Traditional Fermentation Processes
   Temperature Control During Main Fermentation
   Secondary Fermentation
   Fed-batch Fermentation
            3.5.3 Post-fermentation Treatments
   Separation of Spent Grains by Squeezing
   The Characters of the Rice Wine Mash
   Squeezing Equipments
   Batch Pasteurization
   Continuous Pasteurization
   Aging and Maturation

            3.6 Classical Rice Wine Brewing Processes
            3.6.1 Yuan Hong Rice Wine
            3.6.2 Jia Fan Rice Wine
            3.6.3 San Niang Rice Wine
            3.6.4 Xiang Xue Rice Wine
            3.6.5 Red-Rice Wine
            3.6.6 Glutinous Millet Wine
            3.6.7 Sealed-jar Rice Wine
            3.6.8 Corn Wine
            3.6.9 Qing Ke Jiu (High-land Barley Wine)
            3.7 Quality Standard of Rice Wines
            3.7.1 Organoleptic Specification
            3.7.2 Composition of Rice Wines

            4 Chinese Distilled Spirits
            4.1 Classification of Modern Chinese Spirits
            4.1.1 Classification according to the Qu used
   Da-Qu spirit
   Xiao Qu Spirit
   Fu-Qu Spirit
   Other types of distilled spirits
            4.1.2 Classification according to spirit's aroma and flavour types
   Maotai-flavor spirit
   Luzhou-flavor spirit
   Fen-flavor spirit
   Rice flavor spirit
   Other-flavor spirits
            4.1.3 Classification according to the production processes
   Spirits produced by solid-state fermentation
   Spirits produced by semi-solid state fermentation
   Spirits produced by liquid state fermentation
   Spirits produced by solid-state fermented grain combined with liquid or semi-solid state fermented mash
            4.1.4 The classification according to the quality
   National Famous Drinks
   National Fine- Quality Spirits
   The Fine Quality Spirits recognized by Provinces and department
   Normal spirits
            4.1.5 Classification according to the alcoholic strength
   Spirits with high alcohol concent
   Spirits with low alcohol concent
            4.1.6 Classification according to the raw materals

            4.2 Traditional Distillers and Distillation Techniques
            4.2.1 The distillers in Ancinet Times
            4.2.2 Distillation Techniques
   Distillation in Liquid-state or Solid-state
   Improvement of the Quality of the Distilled Spirits in Ancient Times

            4.3 Technological Achievements in distilled Spirit Production After the Founding of the People's Republic of China
            4.3.1 Microbiology and DA-Qu Preparation
            4.3.2 Modification of Fermentation Processes
            4.3.3 Man-made Fermentation Pits
            4.3.4 Improvement of distillation techniques
            4.3.5 Development of Low Alcohol Content Spirit
            4.3.6 Development of techniques of post-fermentation and post-distillation of spirit's production
   Study of Flavour Substances in Spirits
            4.3.7 Mechanization Production

            4.4 Production Techniques For Chinese Spirit
            4.4.1 The Process for Rice-spirit ( Xiao-Qu Spirit)
            4.4.2 The process for "Fen-flavour Spirit" production
            4.4.3 The Process for Luzhou-flavour Spirits
            4.4.4 The production process of Maotai spirit

            5 Beer and Wine Production in China
           5.1 Beer
           5.1.1 Li: Primitive Beer in Ancient China
           5.1.2 Moden Chinese Brewing Industry
           5.1.3 Contemporary Brewing Industry in China
  The First Period (1949-1978)
  The Second Period
  The Third Period (1980-1988)
  The Fourth Period (1989-present)
           5.1.4 National Beer Standard Number:GB 4927-91
  Quoted Standards:
  Technological Requirement
 Beer Qality Guaranteeing Period:

           5.2 Wine Production in China
           5.2.1 Wine Production in Ancient Times
           5.2.2 Methods of Wine-Making in Ancient China
           5.2.2. 1 Natural Fermentation
  Fernentation with Jiuqu
           5.2.3 Wine in Modern China

           6 Production and Sales of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Modern Famous Chinese Alcoholic Drinks.
           6.1 Production and Sales of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks.
           6.1.1 Production Situation in Recent Years

           6.2 The National Famous Alcoholic Drinks
           6.2.1 The National Alcoholic Drinks Appraisal Conference held in previous Years
           6.2.2 National Famous Alcoholic Drinks and Liquors in the Previous Appraisal Conference

           7 Chinese Drinking Vessels
          7.1 Ancient Drinking Vessels

          7.1.1 Primitive-Aged Drinking Vessels
          7.1.2 Drinking Vessels Made of Bronze in Shang and Zhou Dynasties

          7.1.3 Paint-coated Drinking Vessels
          7.1.4 China Drinking Vessels
          7.1.5 Other Drinking Vessels
          7.2 Modern-time Drinking Vessels (after Qing Dynasty )

          8 Chinese Culture of Drinking
          8.1 Historical Stories on Chinese Alcoholic Beverages
          8.1.1 Indulgence in Drinks and Lust for Beauties
          8.1.2 Reward Armies with A Single Cup of Alcoholic Mash
          8.1.3 Handan Was Occupied Because of Kingdom Lou's Inadequate Gift of Alcohol
          8.1.4 Hong Men Feast
          8.1.5 Emperor Liu Bang, Founder of Han Dynasty, Slaughtered A giant While Snake While Drunk
          8.1.6 Wen Jun Sold Alcoholic Drinks
          8.1.7 Comments Upon Who Were Heroes While Drinking
          8.1.8 Seven Great Minds Nearby Groves of Bamboo
          8.1.9 Confucius and Mencius Metaphor Good Alcohol and Inferior One Respectively
          8.1.10 Eight Gods Fond of Drinking
          8.1.11 A Cup of Alcohol Dismissed Generals' Power of Forces

          8.2 Chinese Culture of Drinking Etiquette
          8.2.1 Traditional Basis of the Culture of Drinking Alcoholic Beverages--Moralities and Etiquette of Drinking Beverages.
         8.2.2 Customs of Drinking Alcoholic Beverages on Big Days
         8.2.3 Drinking Beverage Custom on Marriage
         8.2.4 On Worship Ceremony to Gods and Ancestors, Funeral Ceremony and Alcoholic Beverages.
         8.2. 5 Some Other Customs of Drinking Alcohol Beverages
         8.2.6 Peculiar Ways of Drinking the Alcoholic
         8.2.7 Ways of Urging Guests to Drink More at Feasts
         8.2.8 Drinkers' Wager Game

          9 Chinese Administration of Alcoholic Beverages
          9.1 Administration of Alcoholic Beverages in Ancient Times
          9.1.1 Specialties of Alcoholic Beverages
          9.1.2 Detailed Description of Administration of Alcoholic Beverages in Ancient Times

          9.2 Administration of Alcoholic Beverages in the Period of of 1911-1949
          9.2.1 Beijing Government's Administration of State Monopoly Sale of Alcoholic Beverages.
          9.2.2 State Monopoly Sales System of Nanjing Government
          9.2.3 Taxing on Alcoholic Beverage Wineries
          9.2.4 Collection of Tax on Officially-licensed Firms Doing Deals of Tobacco and Alcoholic Beverages
          9.2.5 Tax on Domestically-made Alcoholic Beverages