Chapter 1. 1. 2 Origin of Brewing of Alcoholic Drinks Proved by Archaeological Discoveries

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All over China dot the cultural relics of the New- Stone Age which are as many as 6,000~7,000. Among all discoveries, some grains remains and a large number of antiques not only provide considerably valuable data for us to study how our ancestors of the New- Stone Age behaved in the social life, but also present direct proofs of how the brewing of alcoholic drinks originated.

Brewing of grain alcoholic drinks requires two necessities, that is the raw materials of brewing and brewing vessels. Of course the existence of raw materials of brewing and brewing vessels can't suggest the origin of brewing alcoholic drinks; which can only be used as reference. The followings are some typical cultural relics of the New-Stone Age. Pei Ligang Culture Period

Pei Ligang Culture Period, as early as 7,700~8, 000 years ago (another opinion considered as far as 7, 000 ~ 8, 000 years ago ) , situated in Zheng-zhou, Xing-zheng and other places, Henan Province of Central China, is the earliest cultural relics of the New- Stone Age discovered till now in China. Among other remains are some stone sickles, stone spades, stone axes, stone knifes, stone mills, stone grinding rods, fin-clay red potter- works and remains of grains. Although the shapes of the pottery are in difference from the drinking vessels discovered latter, it is certain that they were one of material conditions for brewing of alcoholic drinks at that time. Homedou Culture Period

It is situated in Homedou Village , Yu- yao County Zhejiang Province of Yangtze River's lower reach, it existed as far as 6,000~7 ,000 years ago. Some primitive tools such as stone axes and stone ploughing tools etc. were discovered in it. A large quantity of man -cultivated rice grains and rice leaves and stems still existed. People at that time began raising pigs, dogs and cattle, and potter- works were delicately made. This period had developed into the typical stage of agriculture. Among the discovered remains, exists a container, called "卤" (pronounced "you") — an ancient- time small - mouthed drinking vessel, which aroused people's peculiar interest and attention. So there was great possibility that brewing of alcoholic drinks started during Homedou Culture Period. Ci-shan Culture Period

Ci-shan Culture Period which existed 7,355~7,234 years ago , possessed developed agricultural economy. Some experts calculated there existed a mass of 100 m3 of grains, equaling 50,000 kg's in the remains (《On the Era and Society of Ci-shan Culture and Pei- ligang Culture》 by Huang Zhong-yue, published in a special issue of 《 Central China's Culture Relics》, Sept., 1987). In the relics were discovered a kind of the watering-pot , small-mouthed pot for storing liquids and a kind of potter-cup, as well as the big- belly container probably used for fermentation. It is worth mentioning here that the mouth of the watering pot has a diameter of 0.2 cm, which couldn't be used for pouring water. So we can reach a conclusion that there probably existed brewing of alcoholic drinks by using grains during the Ci-shan Culture Period. Shang Xiang Dui Relics

It lies in Guang-han of Sichuan Province. The remains buried in the relics, according to the result of testifying C-14, existed 48, 000 ~2,870 B.C. A big number of potter-works and bronze vessels such as a kind of Jia, Gu. (both were drinking vessels) and tea- pot etc. in shape were dug up, they were really rare so far as their sizes were concerned among the pre-historical cultural remains. Da Wen Kou Tomb's Culture Remains of Ling Ying He, Ju County of Shangdong Province

In 1979, archaeologists dup up a large number of drinking vessels in the relics. Among these remains, a set of vessels for brewing alcoholic drinks and drinking wares attracted special attention, they included Da Tao Zun ( a big potter can ) for fermentation, Lou Gang (a big vat )for filtering alcoholic drinks, a jar for storing alcoholic drinks and a potter-pod and drinking wares-single-ear-shaped cups, Zhixing cups ( ), high-handled cups etc., amounting to more than 100 pieces. According to archaeologists' explanation, the person buried in the tomb was a professional brewer (《On Development of Brewing Alcoholic Drinks in the late Da Wen Kou Culture Period 》 by Wang Shuming, published in 《Chinese Cookery 》, Sept., 1987) . A picture carved on the wall of the potter-vat dug up from the relics was considered a filtering-alcoholic-drink one.
There are 6,000~7,000 relics of the New- Stone Age that have been discovered in China, dotting various provinces. As far as the number of discovered ancient cultural remains are concerned, it is too big to list here. However these remains buried under the ground for several thousand years enrich and deepen our thinking of the origin of brewing of alcoholic beverages, proving the facts of the legends that there did exist the brewing industry during Huang Di period and Yu period of Xia Dynasty.

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