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3.6 Classical Rice Wine Brewing Processes
Shaoxing, located in Zhejiang Province has been the most famous rice wine brewing center from ancient times. There are four classic styles of rice wines produced by "JOINT CORPORATION OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE OF RICE WINE-MAKING INDUSTRY", the biggest rice wine producer in China. Their main products include "JIA FAN RICE WINE", "YUAN HONG RICE WINE", "SHAN NIANG RICE WINE" and "XIANG XUE RICE WINE. " The brewing processes developed in Shaoxing have been considered as classical ones. We will briefly introduce the basic procedure here and the mysterious and sophiscated techniques used in various complex procedures are difficult to describe in details because of limited volumes.
As we know, there are five basic types of rice wines. For each type of rice wine, the process and ingredients are defferent. We will take a standard procedure for making YUAN HONG rice wine as an example to illustrate the techniques used.
3.6.1 YUAN HONG RICE WINE
A general flow diagram of the rice wine brewing process (for YUAN HONG RICE WINE) is shown in Fig. 1
fresh water Polished glutinous rice wheat koji traditional │ ↓ │ seed mash ├────────→ washing │ │ │ ↓ │ │ │ acidified rice← steeping │ │ │ steeping liquid ↓ │ │ │ │ steaming │ │ │ │ ↓ │ │ │ │ cooling by spreading rice │ │ │ │ on bamboo mats │ │ │ │ ↓ │ │ └───┴─→ main mash←───────────┴──────┘ ↓ saccharification/fermentation ↓ further fermentation ↓ filtration→solid cake ↓ fresh rice wine ↓ natural colorant→ settling → lees ↓ pasteurization ↓ storage ↓ packing ↓ rice wineThe ingredients for making "YUAN HONG RICE WINE" is given in table 1.
|glutinous rice||144 (kg)|
|wheat koji||22.5 (kg)|
|traditional seed mash||8-10 (kg)|
|fresh water||112 (kg)|
The process of JIA FAN RICE WINE brewing is similar to that of YUAN HONG RICE WINE brewing. This rice wine differs from YUAN HONG RICE WINE in that less water is used when mixing with the mash' ingredient, or the concentration of the main mash is higher than that of YUAN HONG RICE WINE. The ingredients of main mash for FIA FAN RICE WINE is given in Table 2.
3.6.2 JIA FAN RICE WINE
|glutinous rice||144 (kg)|
|wheat koji||25 (kg)|
|traditional seed mash acidfied rice-steeping||8-9 (kg)|
|fresh water||68.6 (kg)|
|distilled spirit||5 (kg)|
JIA FAN RICE WINE is a type of semi-dry rice wine.
SAN NIANG RICE WINE is a kind of semi-sweet rice wine fortified by adding aged YUAN HONG RICE WINE to the main mash before fermentation. The basic ingredients for it are given in Table 3. The brewing process is similar to that of YUAN HONG RICE WINE. Because the ethanol content in the main mash at the begining reached to about 6%, the growth of yeasts is supressed and the fermentation is retarded. The initial mash's temperature is set a little higher than that for YUAN HONG RICE WINE brewing, and during the fermentation, it needs to carefully keep the temperature of the mash.
3.6.3 SAN NIANG RICE WINE
|glutinous rice||144 (kg)|
|wheat koji||25 (kg)|
|traditional seed mash acidfied rice-steeping||15 (kg)|
|rice wine(YUAN HONG RICE WINE)||100 (kg)|
XIANG XUE RICE WINE is a type of sweet rice wine fortified by adding distilled spirits, which is similar to Port-type wines. This rice wine is made by stopping the fermentation by adding distiilled spirit when a significant amount (about 20% ) of sugar remains. The distilled spirit is made by refermentation of the spent grain, the by -product after pressing, and distillation of it. The resulting rice wine is high in alcohol (about 20%) and sugar ( above 20%). This type of rice wine can be made at any time, and can withstand long aging periods. The flow diagram of Fortified rice wine ( XIANG XUE RICE WINE as an example) is shown in Fig. 3.
3.6.4 XIANG XUE RICE WINE
The main points for making fortified rice wines are that adding distilled spirits to the main mash should be in times when excessive sugar is accumulated during the stage of saccharification. The resulting rice wines generally resist further fermentation by yeast action and are stable primarily because of the high concentration of alcohol.
|glutinous rice||100 (kg)|
|wheat koji||10 (kg)|
|distilled spirit (50%)||100 (kg)|
|XIAO QU||0.187 (kg)|
Polished glutinous rice ↓ Steeping ← fresh waer ↓ Steaming ↓ Cooling by drenching ←fresh water fresh water through it ↓ Main mash ← XIAO QU ↓ Addition of wheat koji ← wheat koji ↓ Addition of distilled spirit← distilled spirit ↓ Slow fermentation ↓ Squeeze ↓ Pasteurization ↓ Packing ↓ Final productFig 3 Flow diagram of Fortified Rice Wine brewing process Other Types of Alcoholic Beverages Made from Cereals
Red rice wine, is called "HONG QU JIU" in Chinese. This kind of rice wine has a long history. The producing areas have been scattered mainly over Jiangsu Province, Jiangxi Province, Fujian Province and Zhejiang Province.
3.6.5 Red-Rice Wine
This rice wine is brewed from fine glutinous rice with red rice and wheat QU as saccharifying and fermenting agents, and is bright golden-yellow in colour, has mellow aromas and beautiful flavours, and leaves a relaxing and pleasant aftertaste.
The brewing process is shown in Fig 5.
Seed mash Water Glutinous rice red rice wheat koji ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ │ ├──→ Steeping Steeping │ │ │ ↓ ↓ │ │ ├──→ Washing │ │ │ │ ↓ │ │ │ │ Steaming │ │ │ │ ↓ │ │ │ │ Cooling │ │ │ │ by spreading │ │ │ │ ↓ │ │ └───────→ Main mash ←───┤ │ ├──→ fermentation ←─────────┤ │ ↓ │ │ │ The main mash │ │ └──→ divided into ←──┘ │ two parts ←──────────┘ │ ┌─────┴─────┐ ↓ ↓ Addition of Addition of steamed rice steamed rice ↓ ↓ Secondary fermentation Secondary fermentation │ │ │ │ └───────┬─────┘ ↓ Squeezing → Spent grains ↓ Natural colorant→ New rice wine ↓ Clarification ↓ Pasteurization ↓ Packing ↓ Rice wineThe gredients for red rice wine brewing is given in Table 6.
|Glutinous rice||100 kg|
|Red rice||8 kg|
|Wheat koji||4 kg|
Rice wine made from Glutinous millet used to be the most widely accepted alcoholic drinks in North China in ancient times. Its output exceeded that of rice wines made from glutinous rice produced in South China before Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.). Now the millet rice wine is mainly produced in Shandong Province, Shanxi Province and Hebei Province. The "JI MO LAO JIU" is famous millet rice wine produced in Shandong Province.
3.6.6 Glutinous Millet Wine
The pretreatment process of millet is different from that of glutinous rice. The washed millet at first should be heated by boiling water so water can penetrated into the inside of kernels of millet .After the heated millet is cooled to below 44 ℃, it is steeped in lukewarm water. Cooking of the millet demonstrats a distinguishing feature that the steeped millet is cooked in a cauldron by direct fire .During cooking, the millet is continously turned over. Besides being gelatinized by cooking, the millet is partly burnt to become carameline. This brown colored millet offers the millet wine with a dark-brown color, and this alcoholic drink is transparant, with trace sediments but does not become turbid even after long storage. It has a special fragrance of burnt millet gruel, with a little bitter taste.
The flowchart of brewing process is shown in Fig 6.
Yeast fresh water millet wheat koji │ │ ↓ │ │ ├──────→ washing │ │ │ ↓ │ │ │ boiling water Heating by │ │ ├──────→ Boilingwater │ │ │ ↓ │ │ │ Cooling by speading │ │ │ ↓ │ │ ├──────→ Steeping │ │ │ ↓ │ │ │ Cooking │ │ └──────→ by direct fire │ │ ↓ │ │ Cooling by spreading │ │ ↓ │ │ Adding wheat koji ←──┘ │ ↓ └────────────→ Adding yeasts ↓ fermentation ↓ Squeezing→ Spent grains ↓ Clarification ↓ Pasteurization ↓ Millet wineFig 6 A flowchart of millet wine brewing
Distilled spirit Glutinous rice water koji │ ↓ │ │ │ Steeping ←──────┤ │ │ ↓ │ │ │ Steaming │ │ │ ↓ │ │ │ Cooling by │ │ │ drencing water ←───┘ │ │ ↓ │ │ Main mash ←──────────┘ │ ↓ ├────→ Main fermentation │ ↓ └────→ secondary fermentation (7 days) ↓ Sealed for aging (3-6 months) ↓ Storage in cold place (4-5 years) ↓ Bottling ↓ Sealed-jar rice wineFig 7 The brewing process of Sealed Rice Wine
The distilled spirits are added to the main mash 24 hours later after koji has been mixed with the ingedients, and the additions are divided into five batches. The amount of 1st addition is 6% of the sum total, and the 2nd, 12%, the 3rd, 18%, the 4th, 24%. The remaining is added when fermentation is almost completed.
kernel of corn ↓ Corn grit ↓ Steeping ↓ Steaming ↓ Cooling ↓ ←───────── Koji, yeast, and water Saccharification /fermentation ↓ Squeezing→ Spent grains ↓ Clarification →Lees ↓ Pasterization ↓ Aging ↓ Blending ↓ Filtration ↓ Bottling ↓ Pasteurization ↓ Corn wineFig 8 A corn wine brewing process